Harmonic constants for Whitby

Tidal variations can be represented by summing a series of harmonic terms. Listed below are the four largest harmonic constants (or tidal constituents) M2, S2, O1 & K1 together with the mean value Z0.

Each harmonic term has the form:

Hn cos (σntgn)

where Hn is an amplitude in metres, gn is a phase lag on the Equilibrium Tide at Greenwich in degrees, σn is an angular speed and t is time.

To produce a full accurate tidal prediction it is often necessary to use more than a hundred of these harmonic terms. These results were generated by tidal analysis using tide gauge data spanning the dates listed.


Port Date span Days Z0 O1   K1   M2   S2  
        H g H g H g H g
Whitby 1988–2007 6777 3.351    0.146    88.28    0.129    250.79    1.659    104.15    0.558    147.00